Thailands abgedrehtes Kleingetier

Diskutiere Thailands abgedrehtes Kleingetier im Treffpunkt Forum im Bereich Thailand Forum; Binde der Katze mal ein Marmeladenbrot auf den Rücken, Marmeladenseite nach außen und werfe noch einmal. :biggrin:
DisainaM

DisainaM

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Mittlerweile hat man erkannt, dass das Abrennen der Vegetation in Chiang Mai ein Armutsproblem ist,
weil sich die menschen vor Schlangenbissen schützen müssen.

In Indien hat man nun die Lösung gefunden,
wenn man die menschen zwingt, spezielle Stiefel zu tragen, kann man das Schlangenbissrisiko erheblich vermindern.


https://i.postimg.cc/j5JVB4nn/p09dk2k4.webp

The majority of snake bites in India occur as accidents when people tread on snakes they don't see – thick rubber boots can offer some protection


"The Russell's viper has some of the longest fangs of any snake in India, but it is very hard for them to penetrate gumboots. And preventing snake bites is better than treating them."
Snake venom is a complex cocktail of toxins that varies from species to species. Some of the enzymes and small proteins found in snake venom interfere with the signals sent by nerve cells. Depending on the exact toxin, these can lead to rapid, painful muscle contractions or paralysis. Victims often suffocate as the muscles controlling the respiratory system malfunction.
Other toxins, such as those found in black mamba venom, bind to heart muscle cells to prevent them from beating. Some toxins often found in viper venom cause victims to bleed to death by preventing blood clotting while others can cause blood cells to break down, starving victims of oxygen. There are toxins that cause the blood to coagulate in a bite victim's veins or attack the cells of key organs in the body. There are also venom toxins that trigger extreme inflammation or lead to necrosis, where the tissue on a limb dies and rots away.



Many snakes have a combination of different toxins that can cause a number of these effects at once. It means treating snake bites is no simple task.
"Any one snake bite contains hundreds of toxins in different proportions that vary by individual species," says Boyer. "You can't use a single small molecule drug against something like that."
Fortunately, antivenom is relatively easy to make, provided you have the know-how and access to some horses. At its most basic, antivenom is made by collecting venom from the snake you are interested in (a process known as "milking"), injecting a small amount into a horse and then collecting the antibodies it then produces. These are then purified and can be injected into bite victims to neutralise any venom toxins they encounter.
But it is not always effective and can require large amounts of antivenom as the number of antibodies in each dose can be low.
"Depending on the snake bite, it can take between one and 20 vials of antivenom, and there are cases in the US that have gone to 100 vials," says Boyer. In one study in South Africa, for example, snake bite victims received an average of five vials of antivenom each, but at some hospitals that figure was 19 vials per patient.
The low levels of antibodies that target venom toxins in antivenom can also lead to other problems such as anaphylactic shock as the patient's immune system reacts to the animal antibodies in the antidote – a condition known as serum sickness. "Unfortunately, only 15-20% of the antibodies are specific to and will neutralise venom toxins, hence the adverse reactions," says Albulescu.
Any one snake bite contains hundreds of toxins in different proportions that vary by individual species - Leslie Boyer
Antivenom can also be very expensive. Depending where you are in the world, a single vial can cost anything from $18-200 (£13-£145) in Sub-Saharan Africa to $17,000 (£12,362) in parts of the US. Boyer's own research group was instrumental in developing a rattlesnake antivenom sold in both Mexico and the US. It costs around $100-200 per vial (£73-£145) in Mexico but can cost several thousand dollars in the US. When she analysed the difference in costs between the two countries, Boyer found that much of the difference in price is due to the way healthcare is funded rather than production costs. "Developing and manufacturing antivenom is a very small piece of the pie," she says.
In Latin America, where venomous snakes are also a major problem, there has been a long history of domestic antivenom production from countries such as Mexico, Brazil and Argentina that has helped to keep prices low and a steady supply, says Boyer. But legal, regulatory and hospital costs, alongside the idiosyncrasies of the US medical insurance system have driven up prices 1,000-fold in the US. Relatively low demand for venom in the US and Europe – around 7,000-8,000 people are bitten by snakes in the US annually – also leads to higher prices.
This has knock-on effects for other parts of the world that have to rely on imported antivenom, Boyer adds. "It is difficult to rear horses in areas where there is African horse sickness, so many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are reliant upon importing antivenom from Europe," she says. "Even though antivenom is cheaper there, it can still cost many times the annual wage of a worker."


India has some of the cheapest antivenom in the world, costing around $6.5-11 (£4.7-8) per vial, but problems with quality and availability often mean patients do not get the treatment they need.

"Every year there is a shortage of antivenom," says Bindumadhav. Rural communities particularly struggle to get treatment and are disproportionately hit by the consequences of snake bites due to the wider costs of treatment and loss of income that can result.

"It tends to be the lowest strata of society who are getting bitten in the countries with the highest number of snake bites," says Bindumadhav. "It is farmers and labourers rather than politicians and business leaders who are being bitten." This means the problem is largely overlooked.

Hospitals in India also primarily use a polyvalent (or multipurpose) antivenom as an antidote against the "big four" snakes that cause the majority of bites – the spectacled cobra, the common krait, saw-scaled viper and the Russell's viper. It is produced using venom from these four snakes. But India has more than 60 venomous species of snake and there is no specific antivenom against most of them. Instead, the "big four" antivenom is often used as a general snake bite treatment. Recent research has found, however, that it is largely ineffective against the venom of other important snakes in the country.

To compound the problem further, other research has shown that even among the big four, the toxins in the venom can vary depending on where in the country they are. It means that antivenom produced using snakes in southern India might be less effective against the venom from the same species in the north or those in Sri Lanka or Nepal.

...


Drugs that work against a wider range of snakes are also more desirable as often snake bite victims do not know exactly which species they have been bitten by. If the snake is misidentified, it can lead to inappropriate treatment.

Albulescu and her team have made some progress, finding a mixture of two other toxin inhibitors that appear to work against a wider range of viper venoms including the Terciopelo, or fer-de-lance, in Central America, the puff adder in Africa and the Indian saw-scaled viper. Another group at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark recently announced that they had developed a drug that works against the neurotoxins found in many snake venoms, including those of cobra.

The hope is eventually these could lead to drugs that can be easily stored and carried in first-aid kits as a way of reducing the potency of snake venom to buy victims some time.

...


The Indian krait, for example, is one of the "big four" snakes responsible for the majority of venomous bites in India. The venom of the common Indian krait can kill within a few hours and a higher proportion of its victims appear to die compared with other snakes. But it can be thwarted by a few simple steps, says Bindumadhav.

"It has a dubious reputation for biting people while they are asleep on the floor," he says. "A simple solution is to have a mosquito net hung from above and tucked under the mattress. In India a net like this costs a dollar. It is not expensive."

...

Instead, artificial intelligence could also offer some assistance by helping to identify snake species from photographs taken by eyewitnesses to a snake bite. Many victims of bystanders take images on their mobile phones to assist in identification, but unless a medical professional is trained to tell the difference between species, these can be of little use. Isabelle Bolon, a vet at the University of Geneva, in Switzerland, and her collaborators are developing an app that uses machine vision algorithms to automatically identify snake species. Knowing which species is responsible could not only ensure patients get the right treatment more quickly, but also help to build up a more accurate picture of which snakes are really responsible for bites.

...

The global fight against snake bites

Für Chiang Mai bedeutet dies,

es werden weiterhin die Felder abgefackelt werden,

nur Reiche können sich Gift leisten, um die Gegend um ihre Dörfer zu entlauben.
 
Eutropis

Eutropis

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2 Drittel Schwanz - Calotes versicolor Mann
 
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Thailands abgedrehtes Kleingetier

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