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Serie zur Geschichte Bangkoks

Erstellt von waanjai, 01.10.2004, 14:42 Uhr · 29 Antworten · 4.697 Aufrufe

  1. #21
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    Re: Serie zur Geschichte Bangkoks

    20 - Thailand embraces new invention: photography
    Published on October 21, 2004

    Among their many novel gifts to the people of Siam, Christian missionaries also brought photography, with the French bishop Pallegoix displaying his camera during the Third Reign – and provoking more fright than interest.

    Most Siamese were afraid that the camera would steal their souls until the always-prepared King Rama IV allowed his photograph to be taken. He even established a royal photography department within his court.

    According to a 1905 edition of the Sayam Prabhet newspaper, the country’s first native photographer was Pallegoix’s student, Phraya Kasapkijkosol, also known as Mode Amatayakul. Already a skilled artisan in bronze and gold, he took to the new medium quickly, and was soon followed by Phra Preechakolkarn and Luang Akaneenaruemitr, who is best known today as Chit Chitrakanee.

    Sayam Prabhet reported that the first photograph any Siamese had seen was sent to the court of King Rama III by the ruler of Saiburi (Malaysia’s present-day Kedah state).

    It was a picture of Britain’s Queen Victoria at age 18. King Rama III assumed, like everyone else, that it was a painting, but Bishop Pallegoix, leader of Siam’s Catholic community, soon demonstrated the difference. He introduced photography here just a few years after the French inventor Louis Daguerre left the world dumbstruck with his “daguerreotype” in 1839. King Rama IV allowed a photographer (whose name was not recorded) to snap his photo alongside Queen Dhepsirindhara Boromrajini, although the process was so time-consuming that there was no “snapping” involved. The royal image was sent to US President Franklin Pierce on June 10, 1856, and is now kept at Washington’s Smithsonian Institute.

    Photography became quite popular here by the late Fourth Reign. In 1863, Chit Chitrakanee became the first Siamese to open a photography salon, which was called Francis Chit & Sons. He welcomed clients and the curious to the shop at his Bangkok home on the Chao Phya River in front of Santa Cruz Church.

    Chit was also the first professional photographer to advertise his skills and wares in newspapers, including the Bangkok Recorder and the Siam Mercantile Gazette. He had a pair of rivals also advertising, but neither A Zagler nor J Thompson ever settled in Siam.

    Chit, who had studied with Pallegoix’s missionary colleagues, was later appointed royal photographer to King Rama IV. He continued working in the court, serving King Rama V as well, until his death. The Sayam Prabhet reported on January 20, 1899 that Chit was ordered to accompany King Rama IV to Prachuap Khiri Khan province to photograph the solar eclipse of August 18, 1868, and under the monarch who followed, Chit also travelled to Burma and India in 1871.

    Chit photographed thousands places and people, from high personages to ordinary folk, and sold them widely. Among his most famous images are a series on criminal executions in Nakhon Chaisi (present-day Nakhon Pathom). He was also the first professional photographer to use official seals for his shop, charmingly archaic devices in a changing world that called out the names “F Chit Photographer Sta Cruz Bangkok” and “Chit & Sons Siam Bangkok”.

    Nithinand Yorsaengrat

  3. #22
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    100 FIRSTS: First rice mills
    Published on October 22, 2004

    In an engaging early treatise, “Historical Relations of the Kingdom of Siam”, author De La Loubere reported that there were two windmills in King Narai’s Ayutthaya and Lop Buri, busily grinding corn and wheat. The monarch even had his own corn field, the visitor noted.

    But in the Rattanakosin period that marked Bangkok’s initial
    phase as the nation's capital, the windmills were replaced by rice mills.

    “Siam Directory 1889”, published by Dr Smith, recorded that the first American rice mill was opened on October 22, 1858, during the Fourth Reign. Its founders were American merchants, and its location was on what is now Tok Road in Yan Nawa district. The mill was sold in 1884 to Chinese entrepreneurs, who by then were the only ones involved in the rice trade.

    While Rama IV was on the throne, there were around 30 rice mills in Siam.

    Today there are about 40,000. The crop has always been widely cultivated here and the development of new rice varieties has never stopped. There are about 3,500 grown today, with hom mali recognised as the top grade.

    The Kingdom, a major global supplier of rice ever since the reign of Rama IV, has been the world’s largest exporter since 1981. It currently provides 25 per cent of the planet’s needs, ahead of India, the United States, Vietnam and China. Other exporters are Australia, Burma, Cambodia and Pakistan.

    Thailand last year exported 7.6 million tonnes of rice and expects to ship 9.0 million tonnes this year. Its income from the trade amounted to Bt82 billion in 2003, and is predicted to reach Bt113 billion by 2008.

    Thailand ranks sixth in the world in terms of rice production, with China harvesting the most and India, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Vietnam cultivating more. But China, Indonesia and Vietnam lead the world in rice consumption.

    And the demand is always rising. The planet's peoples ate 387 million tonnes of rice in 1999, and an amazing 408 million tonnes last year. Many mouths to feed.

    Nithinand Yorsaengrat

  4. #23
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    100 FIRSTS: The First Road
    Published on October 24, 2004

    Within a few months of ascending the throne on April 3, 1851, King Rama IV invited royalty and other court officials to donate bricks to improve the decrepit lanes (thang duhn) around the Royal Palace.

    Six years later, he ordered Phraya Thipakornworawongs to allow a new canal to be dug linking the defensive Klong Padoong Krungkasem with Phra Khanong Canal in present-day Klong Toei district with a small road built to the north.

    Thepchoo Thapthong wrote in his 1970s treatise “Krungthep nai Adeet” (“Bangkok in the Old Days”) that the cost of the road and the new Klong Thanon Trong (“straight road canal”), as it was dubbed by the king, was Bt16,633.

    The roadway, named Wua Lamphong, and sometimes referred to as Hualamphong, was still quite slim in comparison with the later avenues that would be built to handle horse-drawn trams and carriages. Eventually much widened, King Rama IV’s first road today bears his name in tribute.

    According to Thepchoo, the monarch dug the canal and built the road to accommodate Western traders who had established their shops along the Chao Phya River to the south of Rattanakosin district in present-day Si Phraya, Bang Rak, Sathorn and Wat Phrayakrai. The businessmen had complained that it was difficult for them to travel from their homes to trade with people in the city proper. They appealed to the king to facilitate their move to what is now Phra Khanong district by digging a new canal and building a road they could use in comfort.

    Ironically, even when the canal and road were completed, they balked at the difficulties of moving residence!

    Nevertheless, King Rama IV remained empathetic when he was later informed by Western consuls that Bangkok’s European emigres were falling ill as they negotiated the city’s filthy, narrow roads – mere pathways compared with what they were used to back home.

    The king in 1861 ordered a road built outside the city wall, from the inner defensive canal Ong-arng to Wua Lamphong Road, to the north of present-day Wat Traimit.

    Another was established from this road along the rear of the Westerners’ community on the bank of the Chao Phya River. This was named Charoenkrung Road, but was generally known as Thanon Mai (New Road). The section of New Road closest to the river is today called Tok Road.

    As New Road was being constructed, the King ordered Klong Kwang (“cross canal”) dug from Bang Rak to Hualamphong Road in the present-day Sala Daeng area, and another road built to facilitate land travellers. This one is known today as Silom Road.

    Both New and Silom roads were earthen, about 11 metres in width and raised 1.5 metres from the bordering properties. The cost of building both was Bt28,039.

    In 1862, the King ordered Charoenkrung Road extended along the city wall, from Wat Pho to Damrong Sathit Bridge outside the wall. Its completion was formally celebrated with a festival in 1864.

    Thus opened the first roads in a city of canals, all of dirt and predictably, treacherously mucky in the rainy season. King Chulalongkorn, Rama V, would see conditions improved remarkably in his time, with asphalt finally applied to the road surfaces to pave the way to a more mobile future.


  5. #24
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    100 FIRSTS THAT SHAPED BANGKOK: Siam’s lack of hotels
    Published on October 25, 2004

    For a country so accommodating of tourists today, it’s astonishing to read of a time when Thailand had “no hotels”. But that was the case in the Ayutthaya period, according to French envoy de la Loubere, who recorded his dismay in A Historical Relation of the Kingdom of Siam.

    “There are no inns in Siam, nor in any State of Asia,” the unimpressed tourist wrote. “Hospitality is a virtue unknown in Asia. At Siam was a French man who resolved to keep inn there: and some Europeans only did sometimes go thither. Yet we saw two brick houses which the King of Siam had built, one for the ambassador of France, and the other for those of Portugal, but they are not finished; by reason perhaps of the little probability there was, that they would be frequently inhabited.”

    But circumstances improved considerably during the Rattanakosin era that followed. The January 16, 1865, edition of the English-language Bangkok Recorder proudly advertised the Union Hotel: “The oldest established hotel in Bangkok. Billiard tables and bowling alleys are attached to the establishment. P Carter Proprietors.” Nearby was another advert: “Oriental Hotel. Bowling alleys and billiard saloons. The newest established hotel in Bangkok. Dyer & Co Proprietors.”

    Admirers of Joseph Conrad will know from his short stories that he arrived in Bangkok sometime in the 1880s in search of rest and inspiration. The Oriental Hotel, he feared, would be too expensive for his meagre wages as a ship’s captain. Thus, he had his first meal ashore at the Union Hotel on New Road, but found the inn depressingly empty.

    “A wagging punkah fanned 20 vacant cane-bottomed chairs and two rows of shiny plates. Three Chinamen in white jackets loafed with napkins in their hands around that desolation.”

    Unfortunately, Conrad’s miserly dismissal of the place is all the testimony we have today about the Union, Bangkok’s “first hotel”, if evidently not its best.

    What about the Oriental? Some researchers say two Danish sea captains established the hotel sometime in the 1860s. The official line from the Oriental Hotel Bangkok allows only that the exact date of its founding is lost in the mists of history.

    A possible clue lies in a newspaper entry from 1863. It reported that Captain James White, the owner of “a boarding house for seafarers at the River Maenam” (the Chao Phya) had drowned while crossing the waterway. Although the name of the boarding house wasn’t mentioned, we know there was only one “boarding house” on the riverside itself. The Union was on New Road, and Falck’s Hotel, which dated its own establishment to 1863, wasn’t “at”, but rather “near” the river.

    In 1865, along with its advertising in the Bangkok Recorder, the Oriental Hotel was mentioned in the annual Bangkok Calendar newspaper of June 11. There was a story about a fire that began in the riverside premises of a trading firm called Virgin & Company.

    “Another 69 buildings were destroyed in the ensuing conflagration, including the Oriental Hotel. The hotel is located on the east side of the river, on land belonging to the Privy Purse, a little below the French consulate,” the Calendar noted.

    History’s mists do indeed enshroud the Oriental, apart from these sparse glimpses, making it impossible to resolve the question of when it first opened. In the 1970s, though, the hotel’s directors decided to simply declare the year of the fire, 1865, as the year of its founding.

    But in 1976, when he formally opened the Oriental’s new River Wing, then-director Giorgio Berlingieri (co-founder of Italian-Thai Development, the lead shareholder in the hotel), invoked “poetic licence” in announcing that the hotel was, as of that date, 100 years old. Thus, the Oriental Hotel was “officially” founded in 1876. And so history bends.

    The Oriental has for many decades been consistently recognised as one of the world’s truly great hotels, its venerable presence contributing much to Bangkok’s reputation as a home to the finest accommodations.

    There are now hundreds of lovely hotels owned by local businessmen, as well as the gleaming five-star palaces of the world’s leading chains. The city has in fact gone from “no room” to “no room to complain”.


  6. #25
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    Re: Serie zur Geschichte Bangkoks

    100 FIRSTS: First advertising
    Published on Oct 23, 2004

    Advertising arrived in Siam not long after the American physician and missionary Dan Beach Bradley gave the Kingdom, on July 4, 1844, its first newspaper, the monthly Bangkok Recorder. Just seven months later, the periodical published an advertisement, “Quinine for Sale”, on its back page.

    Silpakorn University lecturer Anantachai Laohapan wrote in Pasa Lae Nangsue (Language and Books) magazine in 1989 that that advert for malarial comfort should – along with the Recorder’s own front-page subscription promotion in its first issue – be regarded as the first advertising in Siam.

    The ad was simple: easy-to-read printing with no photo or illustration. It read in Thai, “Quinine that used to be sold at Hunter Building is now sold at my house – Dr Bradley’s. Since I realise many people in Bangkok have got malaria, I want to help them. I therefore take the quinine for sale. Its owner gives me a price and I charge the price its owner gives without any profit. Now there are 40 bottles of quinine for sale. Bt17 for each bottle and get a discount if you buy all. Every bottle is the same, good quinine. Do not be curious about its quality.”

    The monthly Recorder lasted only a year, and “Quinine for Sale” disappeared with it. Advertising soon returned, though, when the Bangkok Recorder was re- launched in English in January 1865 and the Thai-language Jodmaihet Bangkok Recorder appeared three months later.

    This time there were company announcements and adverts for insurance agents and hotels, including the Union Hotel, which claimed to be Bangkok's oldest established inn, and the Oriental Hotel, which dubbed itself Bangkok's newest. The content remained simple throughout the era of King Rama IV, but gradually became more colourful – sometimes extraordinarily so. In the Sixth Reign, one advertisement grabbed the reader's attention with a tale about a woman with 500 husbands! It turned out to be selling a herbal concoction that promised to keep a woman feeling fresh and, yes, strong.

    Anake Nawigamune, a veteran observer of Thai arts and culture, wrote that illustrations appeared among newspaper ads early in the reign of King Rama V. Most were paintings.The soon-common halftone printer's blocks weren't invented until 1880 and even then were rare in Siam apart.

    Touted most often in print advertising between 1865 and 1910 were furniture and other items for the home and factory, and food from Europe and America. You could browse the newspapers for engines, clothing, sundry decorations, alcohol, ice and medicine – or make plans to see the circus. A few locally made products were among the treasures flogged.

    Advertising from Japan also began flooding in while King Rama V was on the throne, and 1913 brought the country's first Japanese-Siamese newspaper, Yamato, which was managed by Japanese. It advertised Japanese imports, including clothes, hygiene products, medicine, mosquito coils and photography services, and listed new films playing at the local theatre, also run by Japanese.

    Inevitably, Siam also soon had its first all-advertising “newspaper”, the Bangkok Advertiser, published by Dr Smith. It appeared every Sunday through 1868, then folded.

    Advertising has long since expanded into every media as each was invented. Quinine was obviously something most Siamese needed back in those vulnerable early days, whereas now we struggle to resist the lure of ads for even the most dubious of devices and silliest of sops. Times do change.


  7. #26
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    100 FIRSTS THAT SHAPED BANGKOK: Soda water, lemonade and ice

    Published on Oct 26, 2004

    Thais have always favoured tea, whether a Chinese refresher or a brew of native herbs like ginger and lemon grass, but in the mid-19th-century reign of King Rama IV, coffee was rare, and carbonated drinks didn’t appear until Coca-Cola arrived a few years after World War II.

    Way back in the 1860s, the Siamese - at least some, but certainly not everyone - had two choices of drinks apart from plain water: soda water and lemonade (“nam maned” in Thai), often mixed together.

    The annual Bangkok Calendar of 1864 carried an advertisement for Miguel Cordeiro, Soda Water Manufacturer, and two years later there were promotions for his rivals in the Bangkok Recorder. Lemonade advertising also appeared in the Recorder that year.

    In his 1970s series “Krungthep Nai Adeet” (Bangkok in the Old Days), Thepchoo Thapthong wrote that soda water and lemonade were quite popular among the elite.

    In the Sixth Reign, they and others who could afford it would buy lemonade from either Fraser & Nieff or Watson. It came flavoured with mint, ginger, blueberry and orange, and a bottle cost three satang, but if you bought two bottles, you paid just five satang.

    Few could resist the temptation to pay an extra satang to have the flavoured drinks poured into a cup filled with shaved ice. It was just that much more refreshing.

    Ice itself first appeared in Siam while King Rama IV was on the throne, or so it appears from Prince Damrong Rajanubhab’s colourful book “Kwaam Song Jum” (The Memory), which was reprinted by Silapabannakharn Printing House in 1973.

    The half-brother of King Rama V, who is praised as “the Father of Thai History”, wrote that ice was among the “uncommon things” that came to Bangkok aboard a steamboat from Singapore.

    “It seems that ice was recently made in Singapore and it was offered to the King of Siam,” the prince wrote. “The ice was sent in a big box covered with sawdust.

    “The King always gives high personages and officers the ice. I and other children my age, having seen ice only for the first time, prefer to break it into small pieces and place it in our mouths, tasting its coolness for fun.

    “Elders seem to not like it. They complain it gives them a toothache. And there are elders who don’t believe the King gives his men water ice. They say how can we create a solid object from water? (Metaphor: we cannot create something out of nothing). An ice-making factory in Siam started in the Fifth Reign.”

    Since Prince Damrong was born in 1862, academics conjecture that the first ice appeared in Bangkok in 1866 or 1867, when he was four or five. The first commercial ice-making machine had been invented in Australia in 1855, with refrigeration and ice-cream manufacturing to follow in the 1880s and 1890s.

    Phraya Apirakrajautthayan (Chalaem Amatayakul) gave Siam its own ice-making factory in 1899, but it closed after a few years, and another wasn’t seen until 1943, when Phraya Pakdinoraset (Lert Setabut) opened the Siam Ice Works to great success.

    According to Thepchoo, in the Sixth and Seventh Reigns, lemonade with ice became trendy, though its price at three satang put it out of the reach of most people. A nourishing dish of food cost only between one and five satang. But children were always enchanted by the beautiful crystal ball that manufacturers inserted in the necks of soft-drink bottles as a stopper, so much that smart Chinese traders soon marketed a crystal ball, freed of its bottle, as a plaything and collectible.

    Lemonade itself faded in popularity after World War II, but other flavoured drinks and, needless to say, ice will never be far from hand. Ice may not have even shown up in the Kingdom until some 140 years ago, but few of us would want to be without it today.


  8. #27
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    Re: Serie zur Geschichte Bangkoks

    100 FIRSTS: Public lights
    Published on October 27, 2004

    In the bright neon glare of a Bangkok evening today, it’s almost impossible to imagine the gloom that beset the city within a few hours of sunset little more than a century ago.

    Nonetheless, the capital, vast though it already was, was pitch black after sundown until King Rama V brought electric light to our public thoroughfares in 1891.

    In his father's reign, the light of oil lamps had struggled to illuminate the night, and that only improved slightly when the gaslight was initially introduced. American physician Dan Beach Bradley recorded in the 1868 Bangkok Calendar annual that "RS Scott, Esquire" had given the city its first glow of gaslight on October 26 that year.

    The Bangkok Recorder weekly illuminated the historic moment further: “At Mr Scott & Company’s rice mill, there are lighted lamps in the night. It is light made of gas, not oil, and it is very good. Mr Scott & Company invites anybody in Bangkok who wants to see the light to go to his company on October 24. He believes that it will be a new tradition in Bangkok soon and every Siamese should see it.”

    The good Dr Bradley failed to tell his readers whether anyone did indeed come out to "see the light" that particular autumn evening, but he did report that on the 26th at around 8pm, "Mr Scott & Company performed gaslight at their new rice mill.

    "The gaslight is good and beautiful and people appreciate it," the physician- journalist enthused. "There is no need to use oil. Mr Scott & Company places a gas lamp in a form of elephant at a window that is decorated with alphabets from the King’s name. I want the gaslight to be used in every rice mill, consulate, department stores, in the palace and residences of personages."

    A few months later, King Rama IV agreed to install a small gas plant, called Rong Klan Lom Pratheep, in the Royal Palace.

    The glowing gas lamp in the window soon evolved into the gas lamp on a pole, and by the time King Rama V was on the throne, every major street in Bangkok was lined with lampposts, another giant step toward a brighter future.


  9. #28
    Avatar von waanjai

    Re: Serie zur Geschichte Bangkoks

    100 FIRSTS THAT SHAPED BANGKOK: 27: The coming of the pawnbroker
    Published on October 28, 2004

    Pawning one’s goods for temporary monetary relief is among mankind’s oldest financial dealings, its origins stretching back at least 3,000 years to ancient China. Friends indeed in times of need, pawnbrokers appear in the earliest written histories of the Greek and Roman civilisations.

    The earliest evidence of pawning in Bangkok shows up in the March 12, 1890, edition of the Vajirayan Viset newspaper, which reported that Siam had had a species of pawnbrokers “since the old days”, but no pawnshops until 1866, in the late reign of King Rama IV.

    The first such shop was Yong Xiang, founded by a Chinese named Jeg Hong in the Pratu Phi area at the corner of Bamrungmuang and Mahachai Roads, near Wat Thepthidaram.

    “Jeg Hong was a smart person,” the newspaper declared. “He offered high prices with low rates of interest. He knew well which objects were good or bad and which objects were real or artificial. And even when the objects were not quite good, Jeg Hong always gave a good price. That’s why people liked Jeg Hog and pawned with him.”

    As “banks of the poor”, pawnshops quickly gained popularity and have never fallen on hard times. There are currently more than 280 in Bangkok and another 200 elsewhere in the country.

    Pawnbrokers are customarily busiest just before a new school semester begins, when parents need quick cash to buy their children’s clothes and supplies.

    There are two kinds of pawnshops in today’s Thailand: those managed by the private sector and those by the government, which got into the business in 1960.

    A May 2003 poll conducted by the Rajabhat Suan Dusit Institute found a 22.5-per-cent increase in the number of people using pawnshops since the year before. The most common objects being swapping for money were gold ornaments, wristwatches, cameras and kitchen and electric utensils.

  10. #29
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    100 FIRSTS: The king who led Siam forward
    Published on October 29, 2004

    Western influence arrived in Thailand in the Third Reign and began flourishing under King Rama IV, but in the Fifth Reign, the country truly saw the sweeping changes in administration, economy, education and science that brought it into the modern era.

    King Rama V established new foundations for Siam and transformed traditional society into a genuinely modern state.

    Chulalongkorn, the eldest son of King Rama IV, was born in Bangkok in 1853 and ascended the throne on October 1, 1868. Although the first few years of his monarchy were under a regency, his long reign of 42 years and 23 days witnessed tremendous advances.

    The king actively pursued a policy of modernisation, calling upon Europeans to oversee many projects, such as the construction of Siam’s first railway in 1903.

    He was the first king to travel abroad, visiting both Asia and the West.

    He made trips to Singapore and Java in 1870 and to India and Burma in 1871. He toured Europe in 1897 and 1907 and formed warm relationship with most rulers of the powerful countries there, including the Russian tsar. King Chulalongkorn sent his sons to study in Europe, to schools in England and military academies in Denmark, Germany and Russia.

    Crucially, he cultivated the idea of Siam as a buffer state between the colonial possessions of the European powers in Southeast Asia. Although Siam lost some border territories, it managed in doing so to avoid colonisation.

    King Rama V built a modern army that in many ways matched those of the European nations. In 1871, the soldiers of the expanded Royal Guard were better trained and had more modern weapons than had ever before been imaginable.

    In 1873, the king abolished the old practice of prostration in the royal presence. Government officials were required instead to dress in full uniform and remain standing in the king’s presence. King Rama V even introduced new fashions in dress for both men and women. Men began cutting their hair in the Western style, while women let theirs grow long.

    One of his primary achievements was the abolition of slavery, achieved with deliberate caution to avoid sudden social upheaval. The king gave Siam’s slaves their freedom gradually, until a law abolishing the practice was invoked in 1905.

    In 1870, the king established the first school at the Grand Palace. Ten years later the first public museum was founded within the compound of the Concordia Building. Many ministries were formed in this reign, including those of Foreign Affairs and Justice.

    King Rama V died on October 23, 1910, but remains one of the country’s most cherished of rulers, revered as Somdej Phra Piyamaharaj (literally, the great beloved king) and regarded to this day by many Thais as a holy spirit.

    Nithinand Yorsaengrat

  11. #30
    Avatar von MaewNam

    Registriert seit

    Re: Serie zur Geschichte Bangkoks

    Mittlerweile hat die Nation die Serie auf einer Webseite versammelt, so daß man nicht mehr einzeln durch das Archiv durchwühlen muß um die Artikel zu finden. Deswegen lohnt es sich auch wohl nicht die seit dem letzten Posting in diesem Threat aufgelaufenen Artikel nachzutragen - man findet sie ja jetzt ganz einfach direkt unter

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